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纺织服装|为什么时尚供应链如此的浪费?(一)

来源:mg真人平台 发布时间:2020-08-19       点击数:98

消费端纺织废料可能是更大的问题,但纺织服装消费前建立在服装的设计和生产方式上的防止供应链浪费的实践已经开展。

阿米尔·戴安·塔格尔(AmilleDianeTagle)为时尚界的品牌设计了她职业生涯的第一个十年,从最高的奢侈品到大众市场。 光是她从事行业所造成的浪费就足以她发问这个问题。


“我喜欢设计。设计很有趣,但我不能接受这样一个事实,那就是我增加了浪费这个问题”。Tagle,现在是非营利时尚废物管理组织Fabscrap的联合创始人, 她和前纽约市环卫工人杰西卡·施雷伯上个月在切尔西开了一家商店, 这家商店是经过三年的努力,为曼哈顿五个区的时装设计办公室产生的废物建立的一个二级市场。

来自逆向资源公司的一份2017年白皮书估计,每年有四分之一的时尚制造商购买的材料被浪费。此外,作者得出这类废物是“系统性未公开报道的废物。



为了了解这个问题的真实规模,反向资源公司在供应链的各个层面以及在中国和孟加拉国的七家工厂进行了100多次访谈。至少25% 购买的材料被浪费了,一些工厂浪费了近一半的材料。


废物是时装业各个层面的持续存在的现象——从设计到生产到交付到消费。在设计和生产中,属于时装公司经营范围的面料、装饰和其他设计和完成服装所需的材料上被部分丢弃, 对其他行业来说,这种丢弃几乎不可能。


 消费者前的纺织品废料与服装销售后的丢弃相比相形见绌。尽管如此,从没有接触到消费者的原材料浪费呈现出不同的原因,因为废弃或焚烧的原料在很大程度上是完全可用的-它只是不合时宜,出现在错误的地方或者错误的规格而已 ,如何有效地重新进入供应链呢?

01

A designer dilemma 

设计师的困境



供应链师的一个共同建议,以及品牌公布的可持续性承诺中的一个共同内容,是设计师再培训作为减少浪费的一种方法。但根据来自供应商的最低订单,加上大多数设计商店的工作速度,设计师门对这一建议产生了强烈的反驳。

“设计师的要求和他们被迫在内部工作的时间线并没有留下多少回旋馀地。除非你真的想做出改变,否则很容易忽略这个”泰格说。


塔格尔解释说,设计师在设计过程中有点受制于纺织厂的最低订单。面料样品(运行6‘×6’或12‘×12’)足以作出选择,但要创建全尺寸的样品服装,设计师需要更多的面料,最低限度通常从10到50码。塔格尔说,削减一个样本,甚至几个样品可能需要不超过10码。因此,如果一种风格没有投入生产,大多数情况下,织物的其馀部分都是浪费。


波士顿咨询集团的合伙人兼董事总经理萨拉威勒斯多夫解释说,要想改变人们的行为,就必须在设计室的文化中培养利用这些废物的习惯。公司文化和薪酬体系中的激励和奖励可以帮助将良好的意愿转化为实际的过程变化。她告诉记者:“有了正确的目标和目标,人们如何得到补偿和奖励也是一个重要因素。”




02

Seeking a mature aftermarket 

寻求成熟的售后市场



导致织物和装饰到垃圾填埋场或焚化炉的一大部分问题是缺乏一个成熟的、专业的二级市场来处理这些材料。其他行业的废物流也有这样的市场。例如,大多数供应链都会产生废旧纸板,在有加工基础设施的世界部分地区,这可能是一个有利可图的市场。酿造啤酒所产生的废大麦不会被送往垃圾填埋场,而是在动物饲料的二级市场上出售,最近还被用于人类消费。

浪费的操作永远不应该以对某些废物产品的价值为理由,但一个健康的二级市场是激励负责任地管理这些材料的关键。


威勒斯多夫表示,现有的未完工纺织品售后市场并不“专业化”,而且,据反向资源(Reverse Resources)称,市场鼓励从工厂到品牌的连锁浪费情况不准确地报道。

白皮书解释说,在主要的服装生产国,非正式和复杂的售后市场,纺织品易手多次,使得追踪废物变得极其困难和不准确,推高了这些商品的价格,并使纺织品无法以最有效的方式使用,同时降低了透明转售做法的价值。


换句话说,浪费的规模与有成效地改变浪费方向的机会之间存在着巨大的不匹配。但也有一些组织致力于开发这样的市场,针对时尚运营商在供应链的不同节点上发力。

(待续)

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原文:

Consumer textile waste may be the larger problem, but the pre-consumer supply chain has its own wasteful practices built in to the way garments are designed and produced.

 

amille Diane Tagle spent the first decade of her career designing for brands across the fashion spectrum, from the highest luxury to mass market. The amount of waste her operations alone generated was enough to make her question her career choice.

“I loved designing. Designing was fun, but I couldn’t come to terms with the fact that I was adding to the problem,” Tagle, now cofounder of nonprofit fashion waste management organization Fabscrap, told Supply Chain Dive from inside the Fabscrap Shop — a store she and former New York City sanitation worker Jessica Schreiber opened last month in Chelsea. The shop is the result of three years of work building a secondary market for the waste generated by fashion design offices across Manhattan's five boroughs.

A 2017 white paper from Reverse Resources estimated one-quarter of fashion manufacturers’ purchased materials are wasted every year. Furthermore, the authors conclude this type of waste is “systematically underreported.”

 ”

To get a sense of the real size of the problem, Reverse Resources conducted more than 100 interviews at all levels of the supply chain and in seven factories in China and Bangladesh. At least 25% of purchased materials went to waste, with some factories wasting nearly half of the materials brought in.

 

Waste is a constant presence at all levels of the fashion industry — from design to production to delivery to consumption. In design and production, which are within the purview of fashion companies’ operations, fabric, trim and other materials necessary to design and finish garments are discarded at a level that would seem untenable for other industries.

 Pre-consumer textile waste pales in comparison to the waste that comes after clothes are sold. Still, the raw materials waste that never reaches consumers takes on a different hue since the immense raw yardage discarded or incinerated is, for the most part, perfectly useable — it’s just in the wrong place or the wrong specifications to productively reenter the chain.

A designer dilemma 设计师的困境

A common recommendation from supply chain analysts, and a common inclusion in sustainability commitments published by brands, is designer retraining as a method of reducing waste. But according to Tagle, minimum orders from suppliers, plus the pace of work at most design shops, produce a strong counterargument to that recommendation.

“The demands on designers and the timeline that they’re forced to work within doesn’t leave that much leeway. Unless you actually truly care about making that change, it’s very easy to put blinders on and just go to the next collection,” said Tagle.

Designers, Tagle explained, are somewhat at the mercy of fabric mill minimum orders in the design process. Fabric samples (running 6’ x 6’ or 12’ by 12’) are enough to make choices, but to create full-sized sample garments, designers need more fabric and minimums often run from 10 to 50 yards. Tagle said to cut one sample or even a few duplicates likely requires no more than 10 yards. So if a style does not go into production, most of the time the rest of the fabric is simply waste.

Making use of that waste has to be engrained in the culture of a design office to change behavior, explained Sarah Willersdorf, partner and managing director at Boston Consulting Group. Incentives and rewards built into the company culture and compensation system may help in turning good intentions into actual process changes. “Having the right targets and those targets integrated into how people are compensated and how they’re rewarded is also a big factor,” she told Supply Chain Dive.

Seeking a mature aftermarket 寻求成熟的售后市场

A massive part of the problem that leads fabric and trim to the landfill or the incinerator, is the lack of a mature, professional secondary market for these materials. Waste streams in other industries have such markets. For example, most supply chains generate used cardboard, which can be a lucrative market in parts of the world where processing infrastructure exists. Spent barley from beer-making does not go to the landfill; it is sold on a secondary market for animal feed and, more recently, human consumption.

Wasteful operations should never be justified by the value placed on certain waste products, but a healthy secondary market is essential to incentivize responsible management of these materials.

Existing aftermarkets for unfinished textiles, said Willersdorf, are not “professionalized,” and, according to Reverse Resources, incentivize inaccurate reporting of wastage up the chain from factory to brand.

In the major garment-producing countries, informal and convoluted aftermarkets, where textiles change hands many times, make tracking waste extremely difficult and inaccurate, drive up the price of these goods and keep the textiles from being used in the most productive way while devaluing transparent reselling practices, the white paper explained.

In other words, there is a massive mismatch between the size of the wastage and the opportunities to redirect it productively. But there are a few organizations working to develop such markets with models targeting fashion 

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